6 Achieve universal primary education

Where we are?

 Photo credit:Malanesia Education Development Foundation Inc.
Photo credit:Malanesia Education Development Foundation Inc.

Progress on universal primary education in PNG is assessed in terms of three major aspects of education viz.:

Access to school (enrollment) is measured by Gross Enrollment Ratios (GERs)

Completion of a certain level of formal education measured by Cohort Retention Ratios (CRRs)

Achievement (quality): Literacy rates are used to measure progress for the population

Enrollment:In the absence of data on NER for the two points of time, we use the Gross Enrollment Ration (GER). The GERs are available for several years. The table below presents GERs starting from MDG base year 1990 to 2007 by sex, as reported by the service statistics of the Department of Health (DOE).

Table: Gross Enrollment Ratios (%) by sex at the primary: level (grade 1-6) between 1990 and 2007.

Year

Both Sexes

Males

Females

1990

66.3

68.1

64.2

1995

75.1

75.9

74.1

2000

79.3

82.4

75.7

2001

73.3

78.6

72.2

2005

76.8

80.9

72.3

2007

74.4

78.2

70.2

Source: Service Statistics DOE, 1990, 1995, 2000-2007.

The table reveals that the gross enrollment rates increased for both female and male between 2000 and 2007. However, the rates are below the ideal of 100%. They are lower for females compared to that for males.

Retention:Completion of primary school (grade 1-6), as measured by Cohort Retention Ratios (CRR) is presented in the Table below.The table reveals that only about 60% of children complete the primary level of education.

Table: Cohort Retention Ratios (%) by sex at the primary: level(grade 1-6) for different cohorts since 1985.

Cohort

Both Sexes

Males

Females

1985-1990

57.7

58.7

56.6

1990-1995

62.9

63.9

61.6

1995-2000

56.0

57.4

54.3

2000-2005

61.5

62.8

60.0

2001-2006

64.4

67.0

61.3

2002-2007

61.8

64.3

58.9

Source: Source: Service Statistics DOE, 1985-2007

The MTDS target for CRR was 70% for 2015. The estimated CRR for 2015 is only 60%. Thus, PNG is far below from achieving the global target on CRR.

Youth Literacy Rates: Youth literacy rates in PNG are shown in the table below. According to this table, 61.7% of the youths were literate in PNG in 2000. The table also reveals that the youth literacy ratewas lower for females compared that for males. The MTDS had targeted to achieve youth literacy rate of 70% by 2015. However, it seems unlikely that this target will be achieved.

Table Youth and adult literacy rates (%) by sex in 1990 and 2000.

Indirect literacy measure

Sex

1990

2000

Youth Literacy Rate (%)

Both sexes

60.6

61.7

 

Male

66.6

64.4

 

Female

53.9

58.9

Source  Indirectly derived from 1990 and 2000 Census data regarding the highest grade completed by respondents, using a cut-off point of grade 3.

1.28 years
remaining
until 2015

1990 2015
Targets for MDG2
  1. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
    • Net enrolment ratio in primary education
    • Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary
    • Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men